ctnuser4 on June 27th, 2014

Ad ServerAd servers are useful application for publishers. If you are a publisher, you find it easy at the start. However, as you go on doing more and more business, and get more ads, you are likely to find it hard to manage the business. Under this situation, ad servers are of great help.

An ad server is a piece of software application, used on different platforms and different purposes. Ad servers make the job easy by posting ads. However, having ad servers brings more benefits. Ad servers will help you target your ads properly. In other words, it can easily and properly manage the ads.

What are the advantages of having your ad server instead of a third party?
Having your own ad servers eliminates the need to depend on other ad servers. Hiring third-party ad servers you need to pay. Whereas if you have your own servers, you do not have to spend money.

  • You will have absolute control over your data
  • You will have the complete control and access on your website’s data. This is not so when you have third-party ad servers. This is because in case of third-party ad servers, the technology you use is theirs. This enables them to access your business data. Over a period of time, it will benefit the ad server business more rather than your business.

  • Privacy issues
  • As the owner of a small business, it is not good for your business to share information on the privacy of your business like the number of visitors, clicks, amount of profits earned, etc., to share with a third-party. Having your own ad servers will remove this undesirable consequence of third-party ad server.

  • Timing issues
  • When you hire a third-party ad server, you will get the results from them after some time. This may vary from a few hours to several hours. This is because, such ad servers might have different websites that need to be worked on for segregating the ads and send the result to each client.

    Whereas having your ad server would help you know the results of the ads as and when you need to see. You will know the results immediately. This is helpful, because you could make any changes if required, and you could protect your business from wasteful expense, which you cannot do in case of third-party ad servers.

  • It enables you to know how effective is the inventory
  • If you hire multiple ad servers, it could be difficult for you to take care of the inventory timely. This can be possible when you have an ad server of your own, you can take care of all the ads at one place. This will make your work easier and organized and minimize wastage as low as possible, and you will get a note of how the inventory is performing.

  • You can make a plan according to the uniqueness
  • Having an ad server brings you a good amount of independence and care. In a broader perspective, this will help you know how to go ahead to survive your business. It helps you plan for your business effectively.

Ad servers are useful for your business. If you own a small business, ad servers will make the job of posting your ads easy, and enable timely and appropriate targeting websites and their audiences. Having your own ad server will help you save the expense which otherwise would be too heavy to bear for a business of your size.
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ctnuser4 on June 27th, 2014

The basic qualification required for a career in event management is holding a degree in any discipline. Along with this if you have qualification related to event management that would be an added advantage for your career.

There are several universities that offer event management courses. Some of the courses are diploma, graduation and post graduation degrees in event management. These courses are not accomplished with the scholarships as they are towards the certifications and diplomas and the fee varies based on the course and the university you are choosing.

But companies mostly prefer candidates with degree or diploma in public relation, hospital management, sales or marketing, tourism, etc.

Along with these qualifications the candidate must also have the skills required for event management. Some of them are:

  • Maintaining public relations to manage clients
  • Creative thinking to handle events
  • Marketing skills to convince clients and sell your idea to them
  • You must have the ability to solve any kind of problem even if the manager is not there to guide you which is nothing but analytical ability
  • Management skills to manage your time, clients, risks involved, etc
  • Organizational skills to plan an event and organizing the team members in completing task
  • Networking skills to maintain the relations with the people in order to expand your business

Career opportunities in event management:
Plenty of opportunities are available in event management industry. If you have all the skills and qualifications and if you are talented you will get through this industry with numerous avenues. Join in a event management company or a media house that deals with the activities of event management. You can also start your own event management company if you have some experience or with help of the people who are already expertize in this field.

There are several events to handle if you are a freelancer. Events like private celebration events, corporate events and other events like religious functions, conferences, etc

Pay scale in event management:
The pay scale varies based on the role and responsibility you are handling. It also varies depending on the organization, experience and where the firm is located.
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Philip Amalong on September 19th, 2010

AdserverThe total United States Internet advertising revenues was $22.7 billion in 2009. The third-quarter of 2009 accounted for around $5.5 billion and fourth-quarter of 2009 accounted for around $6.3 billion. There was a decrease in Internet advertising revenues in the year 2009 when compared with 2008. There was around 3.4 percent decrease.

Internet Advertising Revenues

  • The total Internet advertising revenues accounted for about $22.7 billion in the year 2009. There was a 3.4 percent decrease when compared with the year 2008. The total Internet advertising revenues reported to be 23.4 billion in 2008.
  • The total US Internet advertising revenue was $6.3 billion in the fourth-quarter of 2009. There was an increase of 13.8 percent from the third-quarter in the year 2009 which is $5.5 billion.
  • The 47 percent of 2009 revenues were accounted by search revenue which was up from 45 percent as in 2008.
  • There was a very good growth in display advertising which accounted for 35 percent in 2009 revenue. There was an increase of 2 percent when compared to 2008 which was 33 percent.

Quarterly Online Revenue trends in 2009

  • Q1 revenue – $5,468
  • Q2 revenue – $5,432
  • Q3 revenue – $5,500
  • Q4 revenue – $6,261

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ctnuser4 on October 29th, 2014

Countertops bring elegance and many advantages to your home, based on the type of countertop you choose. There are various types of countertops available in the market. Each is different from other.

Some are durable, resistant to heat, strains etc. So, based on the needs of your home you need to choose one among them. So, would you like to know the various types of countertops that are available in the market, then continue reading this article.

Some of the types of coutertops are:

Engineered countertops
Engineered stone is made up of crushed stone when bounded with polymer resin. It is a composite material. Engineered stones come in variety of colors and materials. These engineered stones are mostly preferred as a kitchen countertops because of its flexibility and hardness than the natural stone. Engineered stone countetops can be produced with various thicknesses. They are heat and stain resistant.

Solid surface coutertops
Solid surfaces countertops are manmade. They are good alternative to stone surfaces. These surfaces are perfect choices for you kitchen. These countertops requires very less maintenance which can last for many years. Solid surface has the qualities like stain, heat and moisture resistant. As they are man made they come in variety of colors, patterns and finishes. Most of these countetops are available at affordable costs.

Polished countertops
Polished countertops are smooth and are usually bright and clean. These countertops are mostly found in the homes with classic look. These are top choices of the many homes today. As they are polished all the pores of the surface are closed, so that it becomes easy for cleaning and maintenance. They are more durable. During the polishing process the stone may appear in various colors and finally it comes in mirror like finish. Polished stone countertops retain shine for long time.

Honed countertops
These countertops are also smooth as of polished ones without any bumps or ridges, but doesn’t shine. They are soft with plain looking and appears to be like a natural stone. But, this honed countertops stain than the polished countertops. To make it look beautiful you can add color enhancer on it before you seal it. This will cover all the marks or stains of your countertops.

Lightweight countertops
Some countertops like natural stones are more in weight and are hard to install them or change them whenever necessary. Some, lightweight countertops avoid this disadvantage. Lightweight stone or concrete countertops are made using some shale, slate, etc. at some specified temperatures. This weighs less than the normal countertops but, this lightweight countertops are not that great when compared to the ordinary ones.

Choose a stone based on the needs of your home or kitchen, you can use any of the choices discussed here.
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ctnuser4 on September 17th, 2014

Language is reflective of the culture and tradition of the place. We all admit that visiting some places over trip loses the interest because communication becomes a major problem and in place of enjoying the trip, you spend most of the energy tackling with the language itself. If you are planning to visit such place, learning languages can help you a lot.

Benefits of learning a new language
Learning a language of the place will give you better traveling experience. In case of some doubts, you can communicate with the locals over there and get directions and get your queries solved. Trip becomes so fun and enjoyable if you know the language of the place. Over the trip, may be you can pick some nice person for a friendship and end up being friends for life. You will never miss some interesting place to visit or dine in. you have a friend with you who will keep you updated with the historical and current significances of the places you visit better than any guide.

Learning language of the place you intend to visit will give you better understanding of their culture and tradition. Until and unless you know their culture, you can not appreciate it. If you can not appreciate it, you can not respect it. Traveling places and learning languages develops an open mind. You come over the narrow walls of prejudice and develop tolerance and respect for other cultures. This is very good for the mind. It gives flexibility to the mind.

Learning languages is good for mental health just like your vacation. It enhances the memory power of the brain and it inculcates intellectual properties. You start becoming more mature and intelligent. There is something great we can learn from every culture and language. It brings a flexible trait to your mind. It helps in getting a larger view of the picture to your mind and not a constraint view.

Moreover, even when the trip is over, the language and its benefits stay with you as a skill over the life. It will help you in various walks of your life. You may need to visit a delegate from that country in future and you can easily impress then with your knowledge for their culture and language. You may be apparently be sponsored for a tour by your boss for a business purpose. You never know what may come next.

There are many prerequisites for a travel and you accompany many things with you. Language is just one of the many important things you carry with yourself while going for a trip. Though it is not a mandatory tool, but the experience of the trip will differ. Traveling with knowledge of the language gives a completely new traveling experience.

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ctnuser4 on September 15th, 2014

Volkswagen is one of the leading automotive manufacturers in the United States. Volkswagen makes models like Jetta, Tiguan, Golf, CC, etc. We list here some of new cars that Volkswagen Motors is launching this year (with specifications and their performance features).

The newly launching/launched cars by Volkswagen Motors we are discussing in this article are:

  • Volkswagen Golf
  • Volkswagen Beetle

Volkswagen Golf 2014
Volkswagen Golf is a Compact Cars manufactured by Volkswagen motors.

Specifications of Volkswagen Golf 2014

Gas Mileage 23 mpg City/30 mpg Hwy
Fuel Economy combined 26 mpg
Engine Regular Unleaded I-5, 2.5 L
Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
Base Curb Weight 1407.05 KG
Passenger Capacity 5
Turning Diameter – Curb to Curb (ft) 35.8
Net Horse Power @ RPM 170 @ 5700
EPA Class Compact Cars
Net Torque @ RPM 177 @ 4250
Steering Type Rack-Pinion
Displacement 2.5 L/151
Passenger Doors 4
Body Style 4dr Car
Fuel Tank capacity 54.88Liters (14.5 Gallons)
Transmission system 6-Speed Automatic

Features of Volkswagen Golf 2014

  • Air Bag-Frontal-Driver
  • Air Bag-Frontal-Passenger
  • Air Bag-Side Body-Front
  • Air Bag-Side Head-Front
  • Air Bag-Side Head-Rear
  • Brakes-Anti Breaking System
  • Child Safety Rear Door Locks
  • Daytime Running Lights
  • Traction Control system
  • Tire Pressure Monitor
  • Stability Control system

Performance of Volkswagen Golf 2014

  • A I-5-Cylinder engine 170-horsepower 2.5-liter engine, 6-Speed Automatic Transmission system.
  • Fuel Efficiency of 23 city/30 hwy
  • The combine rating of Volkswagen Golf to get 60 mph in just 6.2 second.

Volkswagen Beetle 2014
Volkswagen Beetle is a compact cars manufactured by Volkswagen motors.

Specifications of Volkswagen Beetle 2014

Gas Mileage 24 mpg City/33 mpg Hwy
Fuel Economy combined 28 mpg
Engine 1.8T inline four cylinder,
Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
Base Curb Weight 1366.2 KG
Compression Ratio 9.6:1
Steering Ratio 16.3 : 1
Passenger Capacity 5
Net Horse Power @ RPM 170 @ 6200
EPA Class Compact Cars
Net Torque @ RPM 184 @ 4750
Steering Type Rack and pinion: electric power assist
Displacement 2.5 L/151
Passenger Doors 4
Body Style 4dr Car
Fuel Tank capacity 54.88Liters (14.5 Gallons)

Features of Volkswagen Golf 2014

  • Anti-Slip Regulation (ASR) system
  • Brake override system
  • Electronic Stability Control (ESC), including Electronic Differential Lock (EDL)
  • Electronic Brake-pressure Distribution (EBD)
  • Engine Braking Assist (EBA)
  • Hydraulic Brake Assist (HBA)
  • Power-assisted front vented disc brakes and rear solid disc brakes
  • Driver and front passenger, front airbag supplemental restraint system
  • Driver and front passenger, combined curtain and side airbag system
  • Front safety belts with pretensioners and load limiters
  • LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children) child seat anchor points
  • Passenger Occupant Detection (PODS)
  • Reinforced safety cage construction
  • Safety belt Emergency Locking Retractors (ELR) for all seating positions
  • Steering wheel, deformable/collapsible upon impact
  • 3-point safety belts for all seating positions
  • Intelligent Crash Response System (ICRS)
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)

Performance of Volkswagen Golf 2014

  • A 4-Cylinder engine 170-horsepower 1.8-liter engine.
  • Fuel Efficiency of 28 city/33 hwy.
  • The combine rating of Volkswagen Golf to get 60 mph in just 6.2 seconds.

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Public relations is the actions performed to generate a positive image or brand for a company. It is a form of promotion that helps in boosting a company’s familiarity among their audience through various methods. PR is one of the best ways to promote your company on a low cost investment. If PR is well planned, it will act as a powerful tool for your business.

If you are a business owner looking for the company promotion, public relations is the best method. Don’t know how to promote your business through PR and what are the benefits that you will get by using PR? Then, go through the below lines.

Public relation can be achieved through

  • Press releases
  • Press releases is a very effective way in maintaining PR. In making a press release, you should be very careful. Here, you have to covey your message precisely and to point. Press releases should mainly focus on the company product or service that you need to promote. Here, you want to conclude by giving a brief description on what your company is. The press release should be a part of your company website once it is released. It should be effective because it directly speaks to your customers about your business.

  • News letters
  • News letter will reflect your business brand and the image of the company. This strengthens the relationships with the new as well as existing consumers. Therefore, promotion through news letters is also a good way to make promotion.

  • Community and employee relations
  • Community and employee relations can be achieved through sharing information related to your business, by making sure to involve your employees in your work, engaging local stakeholders, etc. So, community and employee relations are important for building PR and to promote your business.

  • Speeches
  • A successful speaker who can address your company will help your business promotion a lot. Speeches also play a major role in company promotion.


  • Trust: Maintaining positive public relations will improve the trust and credibility of your company. This boosts your business.
  • Brand image: PR improves the brand image of the company. This helps in sales improvement of your business.
  • Customers: PR builds drives genuine customers towards your company and through trust of the business, they will stay in the long term.
  • Growth of the company: As PR access customers for long term, your business will improve its growth, which in turn bring good revenues.
  • Improves your business quality: If you maintain the PR then, you can get their feedback which can be of positive or negative. If it is negative, this makes you improve the quality of the business.

This is how PR is performed and how important it is for the company promotion. Public relations plays an important role in business promotion.
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Panorex X-ray:
Panorex X-ray is an advanced technology, which is used for taking the complete X-ray of the teeth and the surrounding bones. It gives full view of your teeth or entire oral cavity. This captures the image in only one picture. It is also called as single FMX or full mouth x-ray. Panorex x-ray provides the two dimensional view of your mouth. This is an excellent alternative to the traditional approach through which dentists get the tiny pictures and combined all those to get a complete picture of your teeth, with this it is very difficult to identify the problem that your teeth is having. So, panorex helps you to have a complete picture at one glance.

With the help of panorex x-ray the dentist can see the upper and lower jawbone, jaw joints, nasal sinuses and their surrounding bone, mandibular nerve that provides sensation to the teeth and gum of the lower jaw.

Procedure for taking panorex x-ray:
Panorex x-ray is taken in not more than a few minutes. The procedure is very simple, you just have to stand in the middle of the machine and the cameras attached to the machine are rotated over your in a half circle from one end of the jaw to the other end of the jaw and for a complete picture the patient must wait few more seconds. During this you must use a lead apron, which keeps you away from the radiations of the x-ray.

With this x-ray the dentist can check all the problems of your teeth and jaw. Even though it provides complete picture of your mouth this x-ray cannot detect the minor problems like cavities in the teeth. To diagnose these problems the dentist must use other treatments along with this. This x-ray can detects only few dental problems like:

Problems detected by panorex x-ray:

  • Temporomandibular joint disorders or TMD can be detected easily with the better view of panorex x-ray.
  • Teeth and jaw problems, gum diseases, impacted wisdom teeth, sinus problems etc.
  • With the help of this panorex x-ray you can detect if the patient needs any dental restorations or not.
  • It also helps in early detection of the oral cancer.

These are some of the problems that can be detected with the help of the panorex x-ray.

Other benefits of panorex x-ray:

  • Save lot of time and money with early detections.
  • Obtains baselines data, which can be used for long time dental health.
  • It has no side effects that is, it reduces the radiation exposure.

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ctnuser4 on June 18th, 2014

online German lessonsAn overview
Language is a medium for communication and each one of us is proficient in atleast one of the language. This appears petty enough when we learn the fact that more than 6000 languages exist all over the world and we only one.

Learning a foreign language is fun and interesting. It develops the overall personality of a human being. Though learning a new language may appear tough to beginners but if approached in a systematic and logical way, you will find it much easier. In this article we will discuss about the basic and advanced level of learning a new language.

Basic level learning
Basic level of learning is to develop only speaking and listening skills in a language. There are people who want to learn language when they are traveling. They can learn it in a very short span provided they start it at the moment they decide the trip. Once you have chosen the language you want to learn, next are just some series of steps.

  • The first one is to get hold of words that are used every day. Some words remain same from language to language. They are called ‘cognates’. Learn them. Make sure you learn enough. The value of ‘enough’ depends on the level you want to achieve.
  • Now that you have some words in your hand, jump to sentences. Find simple sentences in that language and try to learn them and use them. Use smart phones to enhance your learning process with the help of apps.
  • Learn simple grammar that will help you to frame sentences correctly. Practice it. Try to speak simple sentences. Start interacting in that language and conversing with the people whenever possible. You may befriend someone over internet for the same.
  • Now get an accent. Continue with your friend for the purpose. Ask him for suggestions or hire a tutor. You can invariably go online and find some videos to pick up accent. Never forget to implement them by conversing and practicing. Over the time you will be good at it.

Advanced level learning
Once done with the basic level, you may opt for the advanced level based on your interest. Business class who want to communicate in written form should develop advanced level for business communication purposes. It will serve them better in the long run. If you are proficient in your basic levels, you are in the initial phases of the advanced levels itself. Other steps are just as simple to follow.

  • Start conversing in that language whenever possible. If you do not find any one in your group, you may find some online, try different topics with them each time so that you don’t get bored.
  • Fix short term goals towards a greater goal and approach towards it. Try to find resources to help you out. It is advisable to get hold of a tutor through online course or joining some local coaching institute.
  • Once you think, you have enough to proceed, try reading newspapers, articles, blogs and literature works in that language.
  • Keep practicing and with time you will get better and better with the language.

Things to remember
When learning a new language, don’t try to force yourself too hard on it. You will need time to develop temperament and habit to that language. Let yourself evolve rather than forcing. Hence you must not make any goals that are not realistic. You will end up getting demotivated. You should make smart goals that are small and realistic. You can work on deadlines for the same to ensure that you are progressing at a good pace.
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ctnuser4 on May 18th, 2014

Of all the safety mechanisms in automobiles, the most basic one, and the most crucial one is the braking system. The ability to stop a vehicle is as important as any other critical component in the automobile, if not more. The braking system in a vehicle includes either slowing down or entirely halting a vehicle. Brakes can be classified into three categories. Let’s see what they are:

When two things rub against each other, there is a resistance caused in between them. This is caused by the imperfections on both the surfaces. This resistance offered by the surfaces against movement is called friction. This property is what is used in the frictional braking system.

There are two kinds of friction, static and kinetic. Static friction is what results when a static body is prevented from movement. A good example is the parking brake. Kinetic friction is caused when a body moving with some kinetic energy and momentum is stopped by another body touching its surface. What happens is that kinetic energy is converted to heat energy and thus the moving object gets stopped. But in static friction, since there is no momentum, no heat energy is produced.

Pumping brakes or compression release engine braking
Unlike frictional brakes, which deal with slowing down the wheel, the working of this brake involves slowing down the engine. When the driver stops accelerating, the pistons in the cylinders would continue to move up and down due to the momentum of the vehicle. In diesel engines, while the piston goes up, it compresses the air above, and since there is no fuel coming in, it would be forced downward, just by air pressure. Because of this, the slowing of the vehicle is delayed. In pumping brakes, when the brakes are engaged, the compressed air is released through a valve just before the valve starts backing down. With the combination of air resistance while going upward and no force while coming down, the piston is slowed considerably, thus causing braking of the vehicle.

Electromagnetic brakes
This type of brakes uses electromotive force to stop the vehicle. There are two kinds of electromagnetic brakes, the spring type and permanent magnetic type. In the spring type, when no electricity is applied to the brakes, the springs push against the plate generating friction, not allowing the wheel to move. When the brake is disengaged, electricity flows through the brakes and pulls the contact with the plate away. Since it uses friction as a means to slow down the wheel, it can also be considered to the frictional braking category.
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ctnuser4 on April 15th, 2014

Technology has undergone changes to meet the needs and expectations of the consumer and the industry over time. With many of them getting obsolete and some facing near getting out of use (e.g. turret boards and double sided PCB), there are still practices that have survived. There are also practices and technologies that are getting popular within a short span of time and those that are in the development stage.

Chemical etching
Chemical etching is a process, that relies on chemicals like ammonium persulfate and ferric chloride. In this process, holes are drilled on the insulating substrate at the desired and predetermined places and then the boards are electroplated to build the thickness on the insulating board. The boards are screened and plated with tin/lead. The tin/lead coating becomes a resist and causes the bare copper to be etched.

Immersion etching is employed by hobbyists to develop their PCB boards. This includes covering part of the board to be protected by etching with materials like sunflower seed oil. The chemical removes the unnecessary copper on the board and leaves behind the copper conducting paths.

Bubble etching includes passing air bubbles through the etching solution to speed up the etching process.

Splash etching uses a motor driven tray to agitate the tray to speed up the etching process.
The drawbacks of the process lies in the fact that as etching goes on, the ability of the solution to dissolve copper falls.

Another drawback is the “undercut” which occurs when the layer of copper under the resist is attacked by the solution resulting in reduction in the width of the track, which in turn leads to short circuiting.

“Overhang” problem may happen due to unetched copper that may result in short circuiting.

Multilayer printing
A PCB of this type consists of many double sided PCBs glued together with a non conducting lamination. However, a mutual connection between the constituent PCB. This results in high data transfer speeds and effective space utilization. The layers of PCBs to be used may range from a few to 25 or even 100, which depends on the complexity of the circuit.

Quite often one or more boards will be dedicated to a common purpose, particularly, for providing ground supply, for providing power or for the signals.

These type of boards are mainly used in high-end computer and equipment, such as supercomputers.
Pressing of different layers is usually done with the help of a hydraulic press and a non conducting glue and lamination are used to keep them compact.

PCB CAM designing and 2d structures
CAD software is aimed to be used in designing circuits in soft format on layer with a predetermined width and thickness and the number of layers to be used. The following steps important to know.

  • Card dimensions are decided based on the required circuitry, the components and the heat sinks required.
  • Deciding stack layers of the PCB – 1 to 12 layers or more depending on design complexity are used.
  • Line impedance determination is done using dielectric layer thickness.
  • In placement of the components, thermal considerations and geometry are taken into account.
  • Routing the signal.
  • Gerber file generation for manufacturing.

The gerber files are fed into the CAM system for a professional manufacturing process of PCB. CAM does the following operations:

Input of the Gerber data

  • Verifies the data; optionally DFM
  • Compensates for deviations in the manufacturing processes (e.g. scaling to compensate for distortions during lamination)
  • Panelizes
  • Checks output of the digital tools.

3D Printed Structure Boards : A step ahead
With the available technologies, 2D and 2.5D PCB have achieved great heights, and they are set to be revolutionized with the advent of the 3D printing technology. This will boost the data transfer speeds and eliminate the use of epoxy resins, conducting links, screws and bolts and the circuit can be designed in a flexible cylindrical shape with circuiting done inside the shape taking the level of the sophistication higher.
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